1-Minute Summary: Eosinophil accumulation in allergic asthma is regulated by the uridine diphosphate–glucose/P2Y14R axis.

Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to allergen exposure induces the production of type 2 cytokines interleukin 5 (IL-5) and IL-3, and the chemokines CCL11/CCL24/CCL26, forming a cytokine/chemokine axis that regulates airway eosinophil accumulation [1]. A recent article demonstrated that this is mediated by the nucleotide sugar UDP-glucose (UDP-G) and the purinergic receptor P2Y14R. Dr. Tadeucz Karcz et al. (National Institute of Environmental…

1-Minute SUMMARY: Biomarkers for Severe Asthma: Lessons From Longitudinal Cohort Studies

Expert Name
Dr Youngsoo Lee, Dr Quang Luu Quoc, Dr Hae-Sim Park

Severe asthma (SA) is a heterogenous disease and the prevalence has increased recently [2]. SA is characterised by uncontrolled symptoms, frequent exacerbations and decline of lung functioning. The disease’s heterogeneity is not only related to airway inflammation and responsiveness to treatment, but also to distinct disease symptoms and comorbidities. Promising type 2 inflammatory biomarkers are immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukins (IL)-4,…

1-Minute Summary: Predictive Significance of Charcot-Leyden Crystal Protein in Nasal Secretions in Recurrent Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

Expert Name
Dr D. Wu, Dr B. Yan, Dr Y. Wang , Dr L. Zhang, Dr C. Wang

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a heterogeneous, inflammatory disease with defects in the epithelial barrier [1-5]. After treatment with corticosteroids as first-line therapy and endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) when first-line therapy fails, recurrence occurs in over 50% of patients [1,6-13]. To improve disease management, it is necessary to identify predictors of recurrence. Currently used biomarkers require tissue harvesting, which…

1-Minute Summary: GM-CSF instigates a dendritic cell – T cell inflammatory circuit that drives chronic asthma development.

Expert Name
Dr S.P. Nobs, Dr L. Pohlmeier, Dr F. Li, et al.

Chronic asthma is characterised by the accumulation of neutrophils in the lungs, which are key drivers in chronic lung inflammation [1,2]. Moreover, neutrophil accumulation density correlates with disease severity [3]. The high levels of neutrophils are a result of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-signalling, which promotes the development of alveolar macrophages (AM) and lung dendritic cell (DC)-dependent induction of Th2/Th17 cell…

1-Minute Summary: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Value of Hsa_circ_0002594 for T Helper 2-Mediated Allergic Asthma

Expert Name
Dr Z. Huang

Asthma is a heterogeneous, chronic lung disease driven by both genetic and environmental factors [1,2]. The current study investigated the involvement of circular RNA (circRNA) in asthma, in particular allergic asthma mediated by CD4+ T cells, and its potential diagnostic and therapeutic value [1,3,4]. Patients with asthma (n=83) and healthy controls (n=54) were included [1]. The circRNA hsa_circ_0002594 previously identified…

1-Minute Summary: Budesonide Orodispersible Tablets Maintain Remission in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Patients With Eosinophilic Esophagitis

Expert Name
Dr A. Straumann, et al.

Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease requiring long-term therapeutic management [1-3]. Currently, swallowed topical corticosteroids (STC) are the first-line medical therapy for active disease [4]. Nonetheless, oesophageal targeting and efficacy of STC are suboptimal. A new formulation of budesonide orodispersible tablet (BOT) showed efficacy in EoE in a 6-week phase 3 trial [5]. The current phase 3, randomised,…

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1-Minute Summary: COVID-19 in severe asthmatic patients during ongoing treatment with biologicals targeting type 2 inflammation: Results from a multicenter Italian survey

Expert Name
Andrea Matucci, MD

In this descriptive study the association between severe asthma, biological therapy, and SARS-CoV-2 infection was investigated [1]. A higher risk for viral infections was described previously for asthmatic patients [2,3]. Because SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated a predisposition to infect the upper and the lower respiratory tract, it may create a higher clinical issue for this patient group [4]. However, it should…

1-Minute Summary: Role of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP in triggering united airway diseases toward type 2 inflammation

Expert Name
Haiyu Hong

The concept of united airway diseases (UAD) includes allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and asthma, all of which share common immune-pathogenic mechanisms [1-4]. Moreover, a systemic link between upper and lower airways exists by shared molecular and inflammatory mechanisms, including overproduction of type-2 cytokines in AR, CRS, and asthma [5,6], not limited to the target organs. There is a…

1-Minute Summary: Functional interaction between sensory neurons and mast cells in the early stage of house dust mite-induced type 2 inflammation and itch: a novel therapeutic target of allergic disease

Expert Name
Miranda Sin-Man Tsang and Chun Kwok Wong

The interaction between the nervous system and immune cells has been reported in fungal-infected skin inflammation and psoriasis, but not in atopic dermatitis (AD) [1-3]. Antihistamines are not always effective in treating pruritus in chronic skin inflammation [4]. A recent study by Serhan et al. unraveled how house dust mite allergens can trigger peripheral nociceptive sensory neurons and how these…

1-Minute Summary: Dupilumab Improves Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Asthma and Perennial Allergic Rhinitis

Expert Name
Dr William W. Busse

Efficacy of dupilumab on clinical outcomes in patients with asthma and perennial allergic rhinitis [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 28]. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2020;S1081-1206(20)30389-6. In this post-hoc analysis of the phase 3 LIBERTY ASTHMA QUEST trial, the effect of dupilumab on comorbid perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) was investigated. PAR is often associated with sensitisation to indoor allergens…