1-Minute Summary: GM-CSF instigates a dendritic cell – T cell inflammatory circuit that drives chronic asthma development.

Expert Name
Dr S.P. Nobs, Dr L. Pohlmeier, Dr F. Li, et al.

Chronic asthma is characterised by the accumulation of neutrophils in the lungs, which are key drivers in chronic lung inflammation [1,2]. Moreover, neutrophil accumulation density correlates with disease severity [3]. The high levels of neutrophils are a result of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-signalling, which promotes the development of alveolar macrophages (AM) and lung dendritic cell (DC)-dependent induction of Th2/Th17 cell…

1-Minute Summary: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Value of Hsa_circ_0002594 for T Helper 2-Mediated Allergic Asthma

Expert Name
Dr Z. Huang

Asthma is a heterogeneous, chronic lung disease driven by both genetic and environmental factors [1,2]. The current study investigated the involvement of circular RNA (circRNA) in asthma, in particular allergic asthma mediated by CD4+ T cells, and its potential diagnostic and therapeutic value [1,3,4]. Patients with asthma (n=83) and healthy controls (n=54) were included [1]. The circRNA hsa_circ_0002594 previously identified…

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1-Minute Summary: COVID-19 in severe asthmatic patients during ongoing treatment with biologicals targeting type 2 inflammation: Results from a multicenter Italian survey

Expert Name
Andrea Matucci, MD

In this descriptive study the association between severe asthma, biological therapy, and SARS-CoV-2 infection was investigated [1]. A higher risk for viral infections was described previously for asthmatic patients [2,3]. Because SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated a predisposition to infect the upper and the lower respiratory tract, it may create a higher clinical issue for this patient group [4]. However, it should…

1-Minute Summary: Role of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP in triggering united airway diseases toward type 2 inflammation

Expert Name
Haiyu Hong

The concept of united airway diseases (UAD) includes allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and asthma, all of which share common immune-pathogenic mechanisms [1-4]. Moreover, a systemic link between upper and lower airways exists by shared molecular and inflammatory mechanisms, including overproduction of type-2 cytokines in AR, CRS, and asthma [5,6], not limited to the target organs. There is a…

1-Minute Summary: Dupilumab Improves Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Asthma and Perennial Allergic Rhinitis

Expert Name
Dr William W. Busse

Efficacy of dupilumab on clinical outcomes in patients with asthma and perennial allergic rhinitis [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 28]. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2020;S1081-1206(20)30389-6. In this post-hoc analysis of the phase 3 LIBERTY ASTHMA QUEST trial, the effect of dupilumab on comorbid perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) was investigated. PAR is often associated with sensitisation to indoor allergens…

1-Minute Summary: Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and receptors in type 1, type 2 and type 17 inflammation in cross-sectional asthma study

Expert Name
Dr Michelle Marks

Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and receptors in type 1, type 2 and type 17 inflammation in cross-sectional asthma study. Thorax 2020;0:1–4. Epub Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has a potential role in allergic asthma [1,2]. TRAIL induces apoptosis in a variety of cells thereby resolving inflammation [1,3]. Conversely, TRAIL has been shown to promote eosinophil survival in…

COVID-19 and Implications for Type 2 Inflammatory Diseases

Expert Name
Prof. Georg Schett

Prof. Georg Schett is Chair of Internal Medicine 3 –Rheumatology and Immunology– at Friedrich-Alexander Universität (FAU) Erlangen-Nuremberg and Universitätsklinikum Erlangen in Germany. His scientific work focuses on creating a better understanding of the molecular basis of immune-inflammatory diseases with rapid translation into clinical practice. His research work lead to the understanding of the phenomenon of LE-cells in 2007. Prof. Schett…

Clinical assessment and management of different endotypes and phenotypes of severe asthma

Expert Name
Dr Liam Heaney

Dr Liam Heaney is a professor of respiratory medicine at Queen’s University Belfast (UK) and a consultant physician at Belfast City Hospital. He leads the Medical Research Council Refractory Stratification Programme (RASP-UK) to transform clinical management of severe asthma, produce more personalised treatment approaches and investigate novel treatment strategies. Prof. Heaney also founded the British Thoracic Society Difficult Asthma Network…

1-Minute Summary: Management of severe asthma: a European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guideline

Expert Name
Prof. Fernando Holguin

In 2014, the first guidelines for the treatment of severe asthma in children and adults were composed by the European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society (ERS/ATS) [1]. Since 2017, a multidisciplinary Task Force of asthma experts, co-chaired by Dr Fernando Holguin and Dr Andy Bush, has worked on an updated version. The Task Force made 6 recommendations that were not addressed…

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1-Minute Summary: EUFOREA Consensus on Biologics for CRSwNP with or without Asthma

Expert Name
Dr. Wytske Fokkens

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the sinonasal cavities [1-3]. It is frequently comorbid with asthma and both diseases share common underlying pathophysiological mechanisms driving the disease, including type 2 inflammation [3-9]. CRSwNP severely impacts quality of life and has a significant burden on society [10-12]. When symptoms are persistent or when there is…