1-Minute Summary: Eosinophil accumulation in allergic asthma is regulated by the uridine diphosphate–glucose/P2Y14R axis.

Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to allergen exposure induces the production of type 2 cytokines interleukin 5 (IL-5) and IL-3, and the chemokines CCL11/CCL24/CCL26, forming a cytokine/chemokine axis that regulates airway eosinophil accumulation [1]. A recent article demonstrated that this is mediated by the nucleotide sugar UDP-glucose (UDP-G) and the purinergic receptor P2Y14R. Dr. Tadeucz Karcz et al. (National Institute of Environmental…

1-Minute SUMMARY: Biomarkers for Severe Asthma: Lessons From Longitudinal Cohort Studies

Expert Name
Dr Youngsoo Lee, Dr Quang Luu Quoc, Dr Hae-Sim Park

Severe asthma (SA) is a heterogenous disease and the prevalence has increased recently [2]. SA is characterised by uncontrolled symptoms, frequent exacerbations and decline of lung functioning. The disease’s heterogeneity is not only related to airway inflammation and responsiveness to treatment, but also to distinct disease symptoms and comorbidities. Promising type 2 inflammatory biomarkers are immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukins (IL)-4,…

COVID-19 inflammatory profiles: distinct role for GM-CSF

Expert Name
Prof. Peter Openshaw

Our study in brief: We performed a very large collaborative study within the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) in over 200 different hospitals in the UK. The aim was to identify inflammatory markers in blood which increased within the early stages of COVID-19 in those who went on to become critically ill. We just recently published…

1-Minute Summary: GM-CSF instigates a dendritic cell – T cell inflammatory circuit that drives chronic asthma development.

Expert Name
Dr S.P. Nobs, Dr L. Pohlmeier, Dr F. Li, et al.

Chronic asthma is characterised by the accumulation of neutrophils in the lungs, which are key drivers in chronic lung inflammation [1,2]. Moreover, neutrophil accumulation density correlates with disease severity [3]. The high levels of neutrophils are a result of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-signalling, which promotes the development of alveolar macrophages (AM) and lung dendritic cell (DC)-dependent induction of Th2/Th17 cell…

1-Minute Summary: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Value of Hsa_circ_0002594 for T Helper 2-Mediated Allergic Asthma

Expert Name
Dr Z. Huang

Asthma is a heterogeneous, chronic lung disease driven by both genetic and environmental factors [1,2]. The current study investigated the involvement of circular RNA (circRNA) in asthma, in particular allergic asthma mediated by CD4+ T cells, and its potential diagnostic and therapeutic value [1,3,4]. Patients with asthma (n=83) and healthy controls (n=54) were included [1]. The circRNA hsa_circ_0002594 previously identified…

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1-Minute Summary: COVID-19 in severe asthmatic patients during ongoing treatment with biologicals targeting type 2 inflammation: Results from a multicenter Italian survey

Expert Name
Andrea Matucci, MD

In this descriptive study the association between severe asthma, biological therapy, and SARS-CoV-2 infection was investigated [1]. A higher risk for viral infections was described previously for asthmatic patients [2,3]. Because SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated a predisposition to infect the upper and the lower respiratory tract, it may create a higher clinical issue for this patient group [4]. However, it should…

1-Minute Summary: Role of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP in triggering united airway diseases toward type 2 inflammation

Expert Name
Haiyu Hong

The concept of united airway diseases (UAD) includes allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and asthma, all of which share common immune-pathogenic mechanisms [1-4]. Moreover, a systemic link between upper and lower airways exists by shared molecular and inflammatory mechanisms, including overproduction of type-2 cytokines in AR, CRS, and asthma [5,6], not limited to the target organs. There is a…

1-Minute Summary: Dupilumab Improves Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Asthma and Perennial Allergic Rhinitis

Expert Name
Dr William W. Busse

Efficacy of dupilumab on clinical outcomes in patients with asthma and perennial allergic rhinitis [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 28]. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2020;S1081-1206(20)30389-6. In this post-hoc analysis of the phase 3 LIBERTY ASTHMA QUEST trial, the effect of dupilumab on comorbid perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) was investigated. PAR is often associated with sensitisation to indoor allergens…

1-Minute Summary: Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and receptors in type 1, type 2 and type 17 inflammation in cross-sectional asthma study

Expert Name
Dr Michelle Marks

Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and receptors in type 1, type 2 and type 17 inflammation in cross-sectional asthma study. Thorax 2020;0:1–4. Epub Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has a potential role in allergic asthma [1,2]. TRAIL induces apoptosis in a variety of cells thereby resolving inflammation [1,3]. Conversely, TRAIL has been shown to promote eosinophil survival in…

Clinical assessment and management of different endotypes and phenotypes of severe asthma

Expert Name
Dr Liam Heaney

Dr Liam Heaney is a professor of respiratory medicine at Queen’s University Belfast (UK) and a consultant physician at Belfast City Hospital. He leads the Medical Research Council Refractory Stratification Programme (RASP-UK) to transform clinical management of severe asthma, produce more personalised treatment approaches and investigate novel treatment strategies. Prof. Heaney also founded the British Thoracic Society Difficult Asthma Network…