One-minute SUMMARY: Biomarkers for Severe Asthma: Lessons From Longitudinal Cohort Studies

Expert Name
Dr Youngsoo Lee, Dr Quang Luu Quoc, Dr Hae-Sim Park

Severe asthma (SA) is a heterogenous disease and the prevalence has increased recently [2]. SA is characterised by uncontrolled symptoms, frequent exacerbations and decline of lung functioning. The disease’s heterogeneity is not only related to airway inflammation and responsiveness to treatment, but also to distinct disease symptoms and comorbidities. Promising type 2 inflammatory biomarkers are immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukins (IL)-4,…

COVID-19 inflammatory profiles: distinct role for GM-CSF

Expert Name
Prof. Peter Openshaw

Perspective from Prof. Peter Openshaw, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, UK Our study in brief: We performed a very large collaborative study within the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) in over 200 different hospitals in the UK. The aim was to identify inflammatory markers in blood which increased within the early stages of…

1-minute summary: Abrocitinib versus Placebo or Dupilumab for Atopic Dermatitis

Expert Name
Dr T. Bieber, et al.

JADE-COMPARE trial The multicentre, randomised JADE-COMPARE trial (NCT03720470), published on March 25, 2021 in the New England Journal of Medicine, showed that the higher dose of experimental oral Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) inhibitor, abrocitinib, showed greater itch reduction after 2 weeks of treatment than dupilumab in patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) [1]. Neither abrocitinib dose differed significantly from dupilumab with respect…

1-Minute Summary: Predictive Significance of Charcot-Leyden Crystal Protein in Nasal Secretions in Recurrent Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

Expert Name
Dr D. Wu, Dr B. Yan, Dr Y. Wang , Dr L. Zhang, Dr C. Wang

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a heterogeneous, inflammatory disease with defects in the epithelial barrier [1-5]. After treatment with corticosteroids as first-line therapy and endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) when first-line therapy fails, recurrence occurs in over 50% of patients [1,6-13]. To improve disease management, it is necessary to identify predictors of recurrence. Currently used biomarkers require tissue harvesting, which…

1-Minute Summary: GM-CSF instigates a dendritic cell – T cell inflammatory circuit that drives chronic asthma development.

Expert Name
Dr S.P. Nobs, Dr L. Pohlmeier, Dr F. Li, et al.

Chronic asthma is characterised by the accumulation of neutrophils in the lungs, which are key drivers in chronic lung inflammation [1,2]. Moreover, neutrophil accumulation density correlates with disease severity [3]. The high levels of neutrophils are a result of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-signalling, which promotes the development of alveolar macrophages (AM) and lung dendritic cell (DC)-dependent induction of Th2/Th17 cell…

1-Minute Summary: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Value of Hsa_circ_0002594 for T Helper 2-Mediated Allergic Asthma

Expert Name
Dr Z. Huang

Asthma is a heterogeneous, chronic lung disease driven by both genetic and environmental factors [1,2]. The current study investigated the involvement of circular RNA (circRNA) in asthma, in particular allergic asthma mediated by CD4+ T cells, and its potential diagnostic and therapeutic value [1,3,4]. Patients with asthma (n=83) and healthy controls (n=54) were included [1]. The circRNA hsa_circ_0002594 previously identified…

1-Minute Summary: Budesonide Orodispersible Tablets Maintain Remission in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Patients With Eosinophilic Esophagitis

Expert Name
Dr A. Straumann, et al.

Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease requiring long-term therapeutic management [1-3]. Currently, swallowed topical corticosteroids (STC) are the first-line medical therapy for active disease [4]. Nonetheless, oesophageal targeting and efficacy of STC are suboptimal. A new formulation of budesonide orodispersible tablet (BOT) showed efficacy in EoE in a 6-week phase 3 trial [5]. The current phase 3, randomised,…

Abrocitinib scores wins for AD

Expert Name
Dr Ricardo Rojo Cella

The Phase 3 JADE REGIMEN study (NCT03627767) was a 52-week study investigated abrocitinib, an investigational oral once-daily Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) inhibitor, in patients 12 and older with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) following response to initial open label induction treatment with abrocitinib 200mg. The JADE REGIMEN results build on the positive results from the JADE MONO-1 and 2…

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1-Minute Summary: COVID-19 in severe asthmatic patients during ongoing treatment with biologicals targeting type 2 inflammation: Results from a multicenter Italian survey

Expert Name
Andrea Matucci, MD

In this descriptive study the association between severe asthma, biological therapy, and SARS-CoV-2 infection was investigated [1]. A higher risk for viral infections was described previously for asthmatic patients [2,3]. Because SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated a predisposition to infect the upper and the lower respiratory tract, it may create a higher clinical issue for this patient group [4]. However, it should…

1-Minute Summary: Role of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP in triggering united airway diseases toward type 2 inflammation

Expert Name
Haiyu Hong

The concept of united airway diseases (UAD) includes allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and asthma, all of which share common immune-pathogenic mechanisms [1-4]. Moreover, a systemic link between upper and lower airways exists by shared molecular and inflammatory mechanisms, including overproduction of type-2 cytokines in AR, CRS, and asthma [5,6], not limited to the target organs. There is a…