1-Minute Summary: Eosinophil accumulation in allergic asthma is regulated by the uridine diphosphate–glucose/P2Y14R axis.

Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to allergen exposure induces the production of type 2 cytokines interleukin 5 (IL-5) and IL-3, and the chemokines CCL11/CCL24/CCL26, forming a cytokine/chemokine axis that regulates airway eosinophil accumulation [1]. A recent article demonstrated that this is mediated by the nucleotide sugar UDP-glucose (UDP-G) and the purinergic receptor P2Y14R. Dr. Tadeucz Karcz et al. (National Institute of Environmental…

Abrocitinib flexibly dosed for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis

Expert Name
Dr Andrew Blauvelt

Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) suffer from chronic inflammation of the skin. It is a common and unpredictable skin disease, making it important to find an effective and safe treatment. Abrocitinib is a promising molecule for the potential treatment of AD. If approved, it could prevent inconvenient flares in patients. AD is associated with uncertainty in daily life. The unpredictability…

The efficacy and safety of crisaborole in paediatric patients with allergic dermatitis

Expert Name
Dr. Peter Lio

Crisaborole is indicated for the topical treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis. It is effective and safe in treating patients aged ≥2 years with allergic dermatitis irrespective of atopic comorbidities. Crisaborole ointment 2% is an anti-inflammatory inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4. It is available in the USA for topical treatment targeting paediatric patients with mild-to-moderate allergic dermatitis (AD) who are at an…

1-Minute SUMMARY: Biomarkers for Severe Asthma: Lessons From Longitudinal Cohort Studies

Expert Name
Dr Youngsoo Lee, Dr Quang Luu Quoc, Dr Hae-Sim Park

Severe asthma (SA) is a heterogenous disease and the prevalence has increased recently [2]. SA is characterised by uncontrolled symptoms, frequent exacerbations and decline of lung functioning. The disease’s heterogeneity is not only related to airway inflammation and responsiveness to treatment, but also to distinct disease symptoms and comorbidities. Promising type 2 inflammatory biomarkers are immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukins (IL)-4,…

COVID-19 inflammatory profiles: distinct role for GM-CSF

Expert Name
Prof. Peter Openshaw

Our study in brief: We performed a very large collaborative study within the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) in over 200 different hospitals in the UK. The aim was to identify inflammatory markers in blood which increased within the early stages of COVID-19 in those who went on to become critically ill. We just recently published…

1-Minute summary: Abrocitinib versus Placebo or Dupilumab for Atopic Dermatitis

Expert Name
Dr T. Bieber, et al.

The multicentre, randomised JADE-COMPARE trial (NCT03720470), published on March 25, 2021 in the New England Journal of Medicine, showed that the higher dose of experimental oral Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) inhibitor, abrocitinib, showed greater itch reduction after 2 weeks of treatment than dupilumab in patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) [1]. Neither abrocitinib dose differed significantly from dupilumab with respect to most…

1-Minute Summary: Predictive Significance of Charcot-Leyden Crystal Protein in Nasal Secretions in Recurrent Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

Expert Name
Dr D. Wu, Dr B. Yan, Dr Y. Wang , Dr L. Zhang, Dr C. Wang

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a heterogeneous, inflammatory disease with defects in the epithelial barrier [1-5]. After treatment with corticosteroids as first-line therapy and endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) when first-line therapy fails, recurrence occurs in over 50% of patients [1,6-13]. To improve disease management, it is necessary to identify predictors of recurrence. Currently used biomarkers require tissue harvesting, which…

1-Minute Summary: GM-CSF instigates a dendritic cell – T cell inflammatory circuit that drives chronic asthma development.

Expert Name
Dr S.P. Nobs, Dr L. Pohlmeier, Dr F. Li, et al.

Chronic asthma is characterised by the accumulation of neutrophils in the lungs, which are key drivers in chronic lung inflammation [1,2]. Moreover, neutrophil accumulation density correlates with disease severity [3]. The high levels of neutrophils are a result of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-signalling, which promotes the development of alveolar macrophages (AM) and lung dendritic cell (DC)-dependent induction of Th2/Th17 cell…

1-Minute Summary: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Value of Hsa_circ_0002594 for T Helper 2-Mediated Allergic Asthma

Expert Name
Dr Z. Huang

Asthma is a heterogeneous, chronic lung disease driven by both genetic and environmental factors [1,2]. The current study investigated the involvement of circular RNA (circRNA) in asthma, in particular allergic asthma mediated by CD4+ T cells, and its potential diagnostic and therapeutic value [1,3,4]. Patients with asthma (n=83) and healthy controls (n=54) were included [1]. The circRNA hsa_circ_0002594 previously identified…

1-Minute Summary: Budesonide Orodispersible Tablets Maintain Remission in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Patients With Eosinophilic Esophagitis

Expert Name
Dr A. Straumann, et al.

Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease requiring long-term therapeutic management [1-3]. Currently, swallowed topical corticosteroids (STC) are the first-line medical therapy for active disease [4]. Nonetheless, oesophageal targeting and efficacy of STC are suboptimal. A new formulation of budesonide orodispersible tablet (BOT) showed efficacy in EoE in a 6-week phase 3 trial [5]. The current phase 3, randomised,…